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How to convert VOB files to mkv with FFmpeg

You have just ripped a movie from a DVD and you want to store it in a compressed format with multi-language audio tracks, subtitles and high quality video.

In this guide I'll show you how to do that by using FFmpeg (version 3.2.5 or greater) on a Linux-based operating system - I'm currently using Debian Stable, aka Jessie.

FFmpeg is able to deal with a vast amount of audio/video formats and containters. For our task I will be using Matroska Multimedia Container container (.mkv files), as it is capable of storing different audio, video and subtitle tracks together. The video stream will be encoded with H.264 codec, currently the best guy in town. Audio tracks will be encoded in mp3 format.

Let's begin!

Step 1: unify your VOBs

VOB file are usually 1 Gb each in order to be compatible with all operating systems, as some cannot read files larger than that size. The first step then is to join them into a single, big VOB file. To do that, browse to the VIDEO_TS folder and do:

cat *.VOB > output.vob

That's it.

Step 2: identify the streams

Now let's inspect the newly created file: we want to find what kind of stuff it contains. Use FFmpeg for that, as follows:

ffmpeg -i output.vob

For example, you might end up with something like:

Input #0, mpeg, from 'output.vob':
  Duration: 01:50:40.99, start: 0.287267, bitrate: 7581 kb/s
    Stream #0:0[0x1bf]: Data: dvd_nav_packet
    Stream #0:1[0x1e0]: Video: mpeg2video (Main), yuv420p(tv, top first), 720x576 [SAR 64:45 DAR 16:9], 25 fps, 25 tbr, 90k tbn, 50 tbc
    Stream #0:2[0x80]: Audio: ac3, 48000 Hz, 5.1(side), fltp, 384 kb/s
    Stream #0:3[0x89]: Audio: dts (DTS), 48000 Hz, 5.1(side), fltp, 768 kb/s
    Stream #0:4[0x82]: Audio: ac3, 48000 Hz, 5.1(side), fltp, 384 kb/s

Here FFmpeg reports that my VOB file contains five streams. Starting from the first one, Stream #0:0 contains data regarding the DVD's menu navigation. We can get rid of it. Stream #0:1 is the actual movie. The remaining streams are audio tracks. I'll discard Stream #0:2 as it contains the same data (English audio track) encoded in a different format.

Mind the deep-buried streams!

Normally, while looking for streams, FFmpeg parses only few seconds of the input data as most formats have a global header there that describes everything present in the file. Unfortunately VOBs have no headers and it is likely to find movies that hold additional streams further down the VOB file.

Let FFmpeg scan it thoroughly by adding two more flags: -analyzeduration (in microseconds) and -probesize (in bytes). Honestly I'm not able to tell the difference between those options: put in there some fairly large numbers and tweak them until you are satisfied. For example:

ffmpeg -analyzeduration 100M -probesize 100M -i output.vob

And, not surprisingly, two more streams are found:

    Stream #0:5[0x21]: Subtitle: dvd_subtitle
    Stream #0:6[0x20]: Subtitle: dvd_subtitle

Subtitles: let's keep them!

Step 3: encoding

We are ready to pack our DVD into a beautiful .mkv file. The command looks like:

ffmpeg \
  -analyzeduration 100M -probesize 100M \
  -i output.vob \
  -map 0:1 -map 0:3 -map 0:4 -map 0:5 -map 0:6 \
  -metadata:s:a:0 language=ita -metadata:s:a:0 title="Italian stereo" \
  -metadata:s:a:1 language=eng -metadata:s:a:1 title="English stereo" \
  -metadata:s:s:0 language=ita -metadata:s:s:0 title="Italian" \
  -metadata:s:s:1 language=eng -metadata:s:s:1 title="English" \
  -codec:v libx264 -crf 21 \
  -codec:a libmp3lame -qscale:a 2 \
  -codec:s copy \

Let me dissect it:

  • -analyzeduration 100M -probesize 100M — keep this one so that FFmpeg is able to find hidden streams;
  • -i output.vob — the input file;
  • -map 0:1 -map 0:3 -map 0:4 -map 0:5 -map 0:6 — here I'm mapping the streams, namely I'm telling FFmpeg to keep Stream 0:1, Stream 0:3, Stream 0:4, Stream 0:5, Stream 0:6 and put them in the output file in that specific order;
  • -metadata[...] — this is used to give streams a title and other additional information, specifically to audio tracks (s:a:0 and s:a:1 where a stands for audio) and subtitles (s:s:0 and s:s:1 where s stands for subtitles);
  • -codec:v libx264 -crf 21 — defines the video codec in use and the constant rate factor (crf), namely the quality level. This method allows the encoder to keep a constant quality level, regardless the output file size: 0 is lossless, 23 is default, and 51 is worst possible. The sane range is between 18 and 28;
  • -codec:a libmp3lame -qscale:a 2 — defines the audio codec in use and the quality level: 0-3 will produce transparent results, 4 (default) should be close to perceptual transparency, 6-9 produces an "acceptable" quality. Using numbers from 0 to 9 means that the audio track will be encoded in variable bitrate (vbr) mode: smaller files, better quality;
  • -codec:s copys stands for subtitles: copy them as they are;
  • output.mkv — the output file.

Bonus point: if your machine supports it, add the flag -threads N to enable multi-threading and give the encoding a boost. Replace N with the number of your CPU cores.


Wikipedia - VOB (link)
Wikipedia - Matroska (link)
FFmpeg f.a.q. - 3.16 Why does FFmpeg not see the subtitles in my VOB file? (link)
FFmpeg wiki - FFmpeg and H.264 Encoding Guide (link)
FFmpeg wiki - FFmpeg MP3 Encoding Guide (link)

Eytan on March 18, 2018 at 00:07
Thanks a lot.
Vangelis on April 07, 2018 at 17:24
Many thanks for the helpful how-to guide. While checking out your sources, i couldn't help but notice the speed preset flag (i.e. slow, veryslow, etc.). I was wondering why have you omitted this option from your example above? Is it because you've tried it but saw no noticeable improvement in the quality of the encoding?
Triangles on April 08, 2018 at 11:32
Hey @Vangelis, I initially thought presets would override manual crf parameters, however this example -> seems to tell a different story. Thanks for the input, I will look into it!
Daniel on June 22, 2018 at 07:57
Very helpful, but I would like to ask FFmpeg can also apply to Windows system? I now use the wonderfox DVD video converter to achieve this goal, so I want to make an alternative, can it be achieved?
Triangles on June 24, 2018 at 09:59
@Daniel FFmpeg runs on Win, Mac and Linux :)
Evgeny on October 14, 2018 at 15:57
Thanks for the guide.
I was getting "Too many packets buffered for output stream" error message and managed to fix it by adding "-max_muxing_queue_size 9999" parameter.
daveclark966 on November 07, 2018 at 08:31
Avdshare Video Converter is just one of the best MKV to VOB converters which can convert any MKV compressed with any codec to VOB without losing subtitles or quality.
Harney on November 23, 2018 at 04:01
Another method is to use iDealshare VideoGo to combine vob files into one mkv, vob or mp4, or avi, etc.
Bob on November 28, 2018 at 00:07
Great guide! But one question. I'm familiar with the -threads flag you mention, but not where to place it in the encoding step above.
Triangles on December 01, 2018 at 10:46
@Bob I think you can place it anywhere you want before "output.mkv"
daveclark966 on December 11, 2018 at 10:47
To convert VOB to MPEG, Avdshare Video Converter, as the most professional VOB to MPEG converter, can become your good assistant.
rickster on January 10, 2019 at 04:38
Hey thanks for your ffmpeg howto. It did the trick for digging out those "dvd_subtitle' streams from VOB's.
daveclark966 on January 11, 2019 at 09:20
Avdshare Video Converter is just the workable VOB to MKV converter that you need.
Stanislav on March 11, 2019 at 04:57

If your media stream is interlaced you need to add special key to deinterlace it. " -vf yadif " (without quotes)

To check if your VOB file is interlaced use the following command

mediainfo input.vob | grep "Scan type"
Bob on June 05, 2019 at 20:06
@Triangles - Sorry it took so long to get back to you. Your answer to my threads question worked perfectly. I put -threads 1 \ just above output.mkv. I'm working with an old 2-core processor and just using 1 thread keeps it from "cooking".

Also, if anyone else is interested, I found a simple command to convert the mkv to mp4: ffmpeg -i output.mkv -vcodec copy -acodec copy output.mp4

Thanks again for sharing this How-To.
Henry on August 06, 2019 at 09:28
Another method is to use iDealshare VideoGo to convert between VOB, MKV, MP4, MOV, AVI, WMV, MPG, etc
David on November 22, 2019 at 02:55
I use Avdshare Video Converter to convert between various video and audio formats.
freewareuser on February 05, 2020 at 18:47
How many more times are we going to see those stupid spam-remarks about commercial converters that dont even work on Linux?!!
daveclark966 on March 08, 2020 at 15:23
iDealshare VideoGo for Mac, the ideal WinFF for Mac Alternative, can convert all the video and audio formats that WinFF supports.
fdasjdsoi284 on August 06, 2020 at 18:37
following this method changes the display aspect rati. My input vob file has a ratio of 16:9, output mkv got 4:3.
Ubuntudefaultos on April 06, 2021 at 19:18
Thank you very much for this tutorial. Extremely clear, could not be better. 2 things. 1 : Advertising like Wondershare or Idealshare are useless here. 2 : If someone has message errors with "buffer size(...)", you have to keep ONLY the .VOB files of a movie and remove all the other files if they are NOT important. For example, only keep : VTS_03_1.VOB, VTS_03_2.VOB, VTS_03_3.VOB, VTS_03_4.VOB
chris collins on April 16, 2021 at 15:53
use dvdbackup -i /dev/dvd -o ~ -t 1 to get all relavent VTS_xx_x.VOB files.
you get maybe 6 files
you then use cat *.VOB > final.vob
this gets you started at top of this page with a clean .vob file.
mky on May 28, 2021 at 19:40
Great tutorial. Thanks!
webor on March 02, 2022 at 14:06
Clear, logic and useful article ! Thanks a lot
Zero on August 22, 2022 at 18:27
Thanks a lot for this great tutorial!